As of January 2018, the population of the five Central Asian countries, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, reached a landmark figure of 71 million people. Uzbekistan, being the most populated country in the region, has a population of 32.12 million people, followed by Kazakhstan with 18.16 million people, while the population of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan is 8.99 million, 6.2 million and 5.55 million, respectively.
January 31, 2018, marked the end of Kazakhstan’s month-long presidency at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). Kazakhstan’s presidency in the world’s most important political body for the month of January was a culmination of its non-permanent UNSC membership and a significant milestone in its strategy of building a positive momentum for global peace and security, as well as its international reputation.
In recent years, China’s overseas high-speed rail (HSR) projects have been of great importance for shaping the country’s new diplomatic strategy, namely, railway diplomacy, which has become a new form of Beijing’s foreign policy along with ping-pong diplomacy, panda diplomacy, and energy diplomacy.
Despite the fact that the protests in Iran is not a rare phenomenon, the protest that began on December 28, 2017, in Mashhad unexpectedly sparked waves of unrest all across the country. Over two weeks, thousands of Iranians in more than 80 cities took to the streets to denounce high unemployment, inflation, and corruption, demanding decline in public spending for foreign military operations.
During the Soviet era, the urban and regional development in Kazakhstan was strictly regulated and often based on means other than economic. With the collapse of this system, Kazakhstan, just like the rest of the Soviet Union, was fully exposed to all kinds forces that shaped current urban and regional systems. Currently, Kazakhstan is a country with growing urban population. Nearly 57.4% (10.4 million) of its population live in urban areas.
Kazakhstan and the United States have agreed to elevate their relationship to the level of enhanced strategic partnership through engaging in closer political and economic cooperation to the benefit of both nations. This has become a major outcome of President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s January 16-18, 2018 official visit to the United States, his first since 2006 and seventh overall. The previous visits were under different U.S. presidential administrations – of George H. W.
On December 18, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump presented in detail his administration’s National Security Strategy (NSS). The document that each president has to produce gives the U.S. Congress a guide of the main foreign policy priorities of the administration in charge. Apart from the U.S. Congress, Trump’s NSS was of particular interest for traditional U.S. allies, as well as geopolitical rivals, China and Russia, given his “America first” isolationist rhetoric.
Nowadays, Kazakhstan is among the world’s fastest-growing primary energy source producers and exporters. The energy industry of Kazakhstan includes oil, gas and coal production, and electricity generation. Being at the heart of Kazakhstan’s energy industry, the buy viagra online cheap oil and gas sector traditionally generates a large percentage of the country’s GDP.
The state budget is a key element of the national economy and entire financial system of any state. Since independence, Kazakhstan has been making intensive efforts to in-crease efficiency of the budget expenditures and budget process by implementing a number of the budget legislation reforms. The enactment of the Concept to implement the result-oriented system of state planning (2007) and the new Budget Code (2008) provided the legal basis of these reforms.
In the age of digital technologies, when information becomes more available on the Internet and traditional libraries lose popularity, many people have doubts about their ability to withstand competition with new information carriers. Surveys of students show that many of them consider paper books archaic, less environmentally friendly than e-books, and quickly losing their relevance.