Taking into the fact that the Trans-Eurasian rail cargo is on the rise it is not surprising that regional countries are strongly interested in enhancing their railway network with new routes and new logistics hubs.
Since today we live in the age of globalization and economies, and financial systems of almost all countries are interconnected, social and economic fluctuations in a country can affect other countries. The U.S. is one of the main players in the global economy, and its economy is big enough to have serious effects on world economy. Therefore, most countries pay special attention to the change in the U.S. financial-economic policies.
Russia has one of the most complex geographical positions in the world. The total area of its territory includes 17.125 million square km accounting for nearly one-eighth of the Earth’s land surface and its coastline is the second longest in the world. Its geographical complexity is also reflected in its regional structure. In total, Russia has 83 regions that are grouped into 7 federal districts.
The recent economic and social development of China promotes internationalization of the Chinese higher education. In 2013, China proposed the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). The initiative includes both investment and logistics projects, also contributing the educational cooperation between the countries along the route.
The demographic situation in Russia has been deteriorating for over two decades between 1992-2012 years number of the population has decreased by 5.2 million people (Rosstat, 2016). Moreover, during 1990-2005 years natural growth of the population was one of the lowest in the world. Starting from 2006 demographic concerns began to attract the attention of Russia’s policymakers where in 2007 comprehensive family support package has been introduced (Besedina et al, 2016).
During the Astana Summit held on June 8, 2017, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) granted full membership status to India and Pakistan. As a result, the SCO now includes four defacto nuclear power states that increase the military and economic potential of the organization. However, it remains to be seen if the expanded size of the organization would have also equal growth performance in its geopolitical influence.
As it is well known, the economy of Kazakhstan is highly dependent on extractive industries, which has implications for coordinating fiscal policy. During 2014- 2016, Kazakhstan's oil and gas revenues decreased by almost two thirds. This sharp decline made it necessary for the Government to reconsider the implications of the fiscal policy.
On July 14, 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was signed in Vienna between Iran and the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany (P5+1), effectively curbing the Iran’s capability to go nuclear for at least next 15 years.
The Indus River is one of the most important water bodies in Asia. The river starts at the Himalayas and inflows into the Arabian Sea through the territories of India and Pakistan. The Indus River along with its five tributaries, Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej Rivers, make up the Indus Basin. The World Bank-mediated Indus Water Treaty signed in 1960 is the document controlling water relations between the two countries.
Uzbekistan is a country that has a great clout in shaping the dynamics of Central Asian politics given its size, economy and population. Therefore, any changes in its foreign policy are followed closely by the regional states and the major global powers. After being elected as a president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev has taken tangible steps toward resetting Uzbekistan’s relations with the neighboring countries, in particular with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.