Since the United States and China are the world’s largest economic powers, in the current international landscape the great importance is attached to their bilateral relations. From this point of view, it could be said that the U.S.-China relations are not limited to bilateral relationship, as they also significantly affect economic, commercial, political and military affairs in the regional and global contexts.
The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) has gone through some difficult and challenging times before reaching its current stage of development. The Customs Union (CU) and Common Economic Space (CES) between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan could be considered as the key elements of the EEU as a regional integration project.
On August 21, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced his strategy towards Afghanistan that outlined the course of the future U.S. involvement in its longest military operation. Among other things, the new strategy envisages a modest expansion in the U.S. troop presence, more pressure on Pakistan to act against the Taliban and, most importantly, a removal of any deadline for the withdrawal of the U.S. troops from the country.
Kazakhstan has been engaged in bilateral relations with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 1992, when the country joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) established by the alliance in December 1991 as a forum to discuss and coordinate security issues with its new partners.
Significant income disparities between the regions of Kazakhstan are one of the major problems of Kazakhstan in the context of spatial economics. The issue of interregional disparities is of political relevance since significant public resources are spent to promote regional development in relatively poor regions mainly through transferring excessive resources from wealthier regions.
At the beginning of November 2017, the National Bank of Kazakhstan (NBK) announced that the licenses for banking and other transactions and activities on the securities market of Delta Bank were revoked and the bank will be liquidated. It was mentioned that the NBK has already appointed a temporary administration and starting from November 3, 2017, all transactions and operations related to the bank’s and clients’ accounts are terminated.
Being an oil export based economy, which focuses on the development of oil and gas bearing areas originating in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, Iran pays less attention to the Caspian region, where there is still much work to be done to develop sustainable exploration and production of oil and gas. In fact, the country is a latecomer in conducting exploration activities in the Caspian region.
This research project is a combination of a comprehensive desk study and a ﬁeld research on the environment and energy nexus in Central Asia. This ﬁnal report seeks to produce rec- ommendations based on experiences and needs of the people of the region, supported by a ﬁeldwork and in cooperation with the partners from inside the region. This report is com- posed of seven sections.
At present, the nuclear non-proliferation regime includes five major international tools: the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) signed in 1968; the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) safeguards system; nuclear export guidelines and associated national controls; nuclear testing prohibition such as the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which emerged in 1996 but is still to enter into force; and the regional agreements on nuclear-weapon-free
In August 2015, the National Bank of Kazakhstan (NBK) adopted the inflation targeting monetary policy regime. Previously, the monetary authority used the fixed exchange rate policy with the national currency, the tenge, pegged to a multicurrency basket with weights 10%, 20% and 70% for the Russian ruble, euro, and the U.S. dollar, respectively.