The Central Asian Energy System (CAES) was designed and built during the Soviet period, when political borders and sovereignty issue were not an obstacle to ensure parallel operation of national energy sectors.
Over the last two decades, the banking sector has expanded significantly in the economy of Kazakhstan. The highest development in the banking sector took place in the period between 2000 and 2008 (until 2008 world economic crisis).
2016 turned out to be the hottest year on record. Moreover, with 2014 and 2015 previously winning the title of the hottest year, 2016 becomes third one in a row. Besides, 16 out of 17 hottest years on instrumental temperature record took place in the 21st century.