Despite the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), China remains the major trade partner of Kazakhstan. Within the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) Initiative, the two countries are developing infrastructure facilities for bilateral trade.
Renewable energy technologies have become more efficient in the recent years, and as a result, more economically feasible. Renewable energy sources have always been appealing in terms of overcoming the effects of greenhouse gas emissions caused by coal-fired power plants.
The National Fund of Kazakhstan (NOF) was created in the early 2000s by the decree of the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, “on the National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan” issued on August 2000.
For the second consecutive year, Turkmenistan is facing the problem of decline in the amount of its natural gas customers. In 2017 Ashgabat reduced the list of its natural gas export routes down to one, namely, to China.
Iran and P5+1 countries (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States), after 2 years of negotiations on the Iranian nuclear program signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on July 14, 2015.
It is essential for the oil-rich Kazakhstan to ensure the progressive development of the export capacity in all the major export routes, as well as to secure transportation of oil and petroleum products to domestic markets.