Since today we live in the age of globalization and economies, and financial systems of almost all countries are interconnected, social and economic fluctuations in a country can affect other countries. The U.S.
Russia has one of the most complex geographical positions in the world. The total area of its territory includes 17.125 million square km accounting for nearly one-eighth of the Earth’s land surface and its coastline is the second longest in the world.
As it is well known, the economy of Kazakhstan is highly dependent on extractive industries, which has implications for coordinating fiscal policy. During 2014- 2016, Kazakhstan's oil and gas revenues decreased by almost two thirds.
On July 14, 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was signed in Vienna between Iran and the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany (P5+1), effectively curbing the Iran’s capability to go nuclear for at least next 15 years.