As it is well known, the economy of Kazakhstan is highly dependent on extractive industries, which has implications for coordinating fiscal policy. During 2014- 2016, Kazakhstan's oil and gas revenues decreased by almost two thirds.
On July 14, 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was signed in Vienna between Iran and the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany (P5+1), effectively curbing the Iran’s capability to go nuclear for at least next 15 years.
Uzbekistan is a country that has a great clout in shaping the dynamics of Central Asian politics given its size, economy and population. Therefore, any changes in its foreign policy are followed closely by the regional states and the major global powers.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all former Soviet Union countries adopted market economies instead of planned economy. Market economy implies the presence of the private companies, while during the Soviet Union all companies were state-owned.
In late June 2017, the reports circulated in mass media that Kazakhstan’s military might be deployed in Syria as part of the multilateral mechanism to monitor the ceasefire regime. The news caused a mixed, though mostly negative, reaction among the country’s general public.