Kazakhstan has implemented important reforms and achieved major breakthroughs in its political and socioeconomic development, and the nation’s energy and mineral resources have played a crucial role in this transformation.
Kazakhstan adheres to the multi-vector cooperation and partnership in foreign policy. The European Union, as one of the main global political economic actors, has a special place in the Kazakhstani multi-vector policy.
Tourism sector with ever-growing prospects has become one of the major categories of international trade in services. In 2015 1.18 billion international tourists have traveled around the world where international tourism receipts reached $1.26 trillion.
The main feature of the historical development of the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century as a multinational state was that the bulk of Muslims of the Russian Empire were Turkic-speaking people.