The Central Asian Energy System (CAES) was designed and built during the Soviet period, when political borders and sovereignty issue were not an obstacle to ensure parallel operation of national energy sectors.
It is essential for the oil-rich Kazakhstan to ensure the progressive development of the export capacity in all the major export routes, as well as to secure transportation of oil and petroleum products to domestic markets.
Iran and P5+1 countries (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States), after 2 years of negotiations on the Iranian nuclear program signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) on July 14, 2015.
For the second consecutive year, Turkmenistan is facing the problem of decline in the amount of its natural gas customers. In 2017 Ashgabat reduced the list of its natural gas export routes down to one, namely, to China.
The National Fund of Kazakhstan (NOF) was created in the early 2000s by the decree of the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, “on the National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan” issued on August 2000.