The marketization and neoliberal trends have called Kazakhstan to pay greater attention to the issue of university autonomy. Thus, the topic of university autonomy has been studied rather intensively.
In the context of global security challanges that spread across the Middle East and North Africa dramatically reshaping the geopolitical landscape of the region more than anything else demonstrated the importance of ensuring international and regional security.
History has preserved a significant amount of ancient Turkic, Uighur, Oguz, Kipchak-Bulgarian written monuments, which were created in the vast territory: in the Middle East, in Central Asia, the Volga region, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, etc.
With increasing demand for natural gas, pipeline infrastructure started playing even more important role for transit countries in the Eurasian gas supply chain.