Theoretically, inflation targeting (IT) is a monetary policy strategy which is characterized by public announcement of official quantitative targets for the inflation rate over one or more time horizons and by explicit acknowledgement that low and stable inflation is the primary long-run goal of
The foreign direct investments (FDI) have become a key source of growth in many transitional economies. Therefore, attracting the FDI into the national economy has become one of the objectives of the investment policy of Uzbekistan.
China is one of the major trade partnersof Kazakhstan, actually it’s the second trade partner after Russia. Inorder to strengthen the economic relations and to increase the effectiveness of cargo transportation from China to Europe through Kazakhstan, both sides initiated the Khorgos project.
In recent years, the economy of Kazakhstan was affected by two major external factors, such as changes in the trade regime associated with the accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and decrease in oil prices. These factors have influenced many aspects of the economy of Kazakhstan.
Presently, Kazakhstan exploits three oil refineries that were constructed during the USSR period: in the Pavlodar, Atyrau and South Kazakhstan regions. The first operating oil refinery plant was constructed in Atyrau in 1945, at the end of the World War II.
As most of the other Central Asian countries, Kyrgyzstan is an energyrich country with a wide range of minerals. However, the main mineral mined in the country is gold, which has made the gold mining industry one of the pillars of the Kyrgyzstan's economy.