Sovereign Wealth Fund Samruk-Kazyna (SK) was established in October 2008 by the Decree of the President of Kazakhstan “On some measures on competitiveness and sustainability of national economy”.
Despite the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), China remains the major trade partner of Kazakhstan. Within the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) Initiative, the two countries are developing infrastructure facilities for bilateral trade.
The National Fund of Kazakhstan (NOF) was created in the early 2000s by the decree of the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, “on the National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan” issued on August 2000.
In 2014 and 2015, the trade volumes in terms of tenge of Kazakhstan Stock exchange (KASE) grew with an enormous pace, with annual growth of 45.9% and 97.0% respectively.
In March-April of 2014, the US and the European Union countries, Canada along with Australia and Japan imposed sanctions on Russia over Ukrainian/Crimean crisis. These sanctions mostly targeted Russian arms, energy and financial state-owned entities and Russian officials.
The yearly meeting of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council was held in St. Petersburg on December 26, 2016.
Due to the high importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), today most of emerging and developing countries willing are to increase the share of these enterprises.