Renewable energy technologies have become more efficient in the recent years, and as a result, more economically feasible. Renewable energy sources have always been appealing in terms of overcoming the effects of greenhouse gas emissions caused by coal-fired power plants.
For the second consecutive year, Turkmenistan is facing the problem of decline in the amount of its natural gas customers. In 2017 Ashgabat reduced the list of its natural gas export routes down to one, namely, to China.
It is essential for the oil-rich Kazakhstan to ensure the progressive development of the export capacity in all the major export routes, as well as to secure transportation of oil and petroleum products to domestic markets.
As an energy-rich developing country, Kazakhstan is deeply concerned over its ability to provide sufficient energy supply for sustainable economic growth.
2016 turned out to be the hottest year on record. Moreover, with 2014 and 2015 previously winning the title of the hottest year, 2016 becomes third one in a row. Besides, 16 out of 17 hottest years on instrumental temperature record took place in the 21st century.
The Kashagan oilfield is located in the nature reserve area of the northern part of the Caspian Sea. The waters here are shallow with depth of two to ten meters. Moreover, the area has an extreme weather conditions with hot summers and cold winters.
Among the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Kazakhstan has the 2rd largest liquid hydrocarbon fields after Russia.
It is well known that over 90% of revenues, which go to the National Fund (NF) of Kazakhstan, originate from exports of energy resources.