This study examines changes in regional industrial specialization in Kazakhstan during the period from 1990 to 2013. It is based on production data from 30 industries in 16 regions of Kazakhstan. The analysis suggests that during the sample period the regions of Kazakhstan became more specialized in absolute and relative terms. However, the patterns of spatial movement of industries were highly affected by the rapid growth of the oil and gas industry. This made the oil producing regions to have a completely different performance from the rest of the regions in terms of industrial specialization. As a result, the oil producing regions became extremely specialized in absolute terms whereas other regions became highly specialized in relative terms. This fundamentally changed the industrial specialization of the western oil rich regions. The southern and eastern regions as well as the capital city were less exposed to this effect. Relatively small changes of industrial specialization were found in the central and northern regions. However, the oil and gas industry is gradually losing its impetus that was extremely strong in 1990s.