As it is well known, the economy of Kazakhstan is highly dependent on extractive industries, which has implications for coordinating fiscal policy. During 2014- 2016, Kazakhstan's oil and gas revenues decreased by almost two thirds. This sharp decline made it necessary for the Government to reconsider the implications of the fiscal policy.
On July 14, 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was signed in Vienna between Iran and the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany (P5+1), effectively curbing the Iran’s capability to go nuclear for at least next 15 years.
The Indus River is one of the most important water bodies in Asia. The river starts at the Himalayas and inflows into the Arabian Sea through the territories of India and Pakistan. The Indus River along with its five tributaries, Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej Rivers, make up the Indus Basin. The World Bank-mediated Indus Water Treaty signed in 1960 is the document controlling water relations between the two countries.
Uzbekistan is a country that has a great clout in shaping the dynamics of Central Asian politics given its size, economy and population. Therefore, any changes in its foreign policy are followed closely by the regional states and the major global powers. After being elected as a president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev has taken tangible steps toward resetting Uzbekistan’s relations with the neighboring countries, in particular with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all former Soviet Union countries adopted market economies instead of planned economy. Market economy implies the presence of the private companies, while during the Soviet Union all companies were state-owned. Therefore, the former Soviet Union countries had to carry out privatization programs, by selling state-owned companies to private investors.
In late June 2017, the reports circulated in mass media that Kazakhstan’s military might be deployed in Syria as part of the multilateral mechanism to monitor the ceasefire regime. The news caused a mixed, though mostly negative, reaction among the country’s general public.
On November 15, 2015, the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, signed a law “On the Compulsory Social Health Insurance”. Based on the law, the country is implementing a compulsory social health insurance system (CSHI) within the framework of the “100 concrete steps” program proposed by the President.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has undertaken several educational reform measures in order to find the balance between the Soviet legacy and Western model of higher education. Starting from 1992, numerous reforms have been made in the Russian higher education system with the aim of making the tertiary education system more flexible, more variative and less centralized in order to meet demands of the new market system.
In 2015, the number of people who forcibly leave their homes reached to 65.3 million people. Among them, 21.3 million are refugees and 40.8 million of them are relocated within their country. Comparing with 2014 this figure is increased 5.8 million where developed countries host only 5% of them meanwhile 86% of them reside in developing countries.
The Makhachkala seaport was the busiest Russian port in the Caspian basin right up to the recent changes in the oil transportation flows in the region. Until recently, the seaport has accounted for more than a half of the total cargo throughput of Russia’s seaports in the Caspian Sea on average.