The ECO is a regional organization established for stronger cooperation and deeper regional integration in 1985 with the joint efforts of Turkey, Pakistan, and Iran. The ECO is the successor of the Regional Cooperation for Development that was established in 1964, but with the revolution in Iran it was no longer functional. However, in 1985, three countries realized the importance of regional integrations and established a similar organization with the same vision.
Taking into account the increasing trade flows in the Eurasian region, Kazakhstan started to make a significant investments to the expansion of its transport capacity. Astana has a vital interest in deepening cooperation with the neighboring countries on the issue of development of its regional transport infrastructure with its further integration into the global transport system.
Since independence, Kazakhstan has always demonstrated its interest and readiness to improve its Armed Forces. Since boosting the Caspian security through the successful development of the maritime border capabilities became the vital element of Kazakhstan’s military reform agenda, it was decided to pay special attention to establish the Naval Forces.
In March 2017, civil war in Syria will enter its 6th year. During this period, 11 million Syrians flee from their homes where 6.6 million Syrians migrated to different parts of the country while 4.95 million of them seek refuge abroad. The majority of Syrians are migrated to neighboring countries like Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt and Iraq and more than 1 million people through different routes try to reach mostly Western European countries (UNHCR, 2017).
Sovereign Wealth Fund Samruk-Kazyna (SK) was established in October 2008 by the Decree of the President of Kazakhstan “On some measures on competitiveness and sustainability of national economy”. The SK was created by a merge of the Holding for the Management of State Assets Samruk and the Kazyna Sustainable Development Fund.
Speaking on March 6, 2017 to the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Yukiya Amano, IAEA Director General, announced that the IAEA Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Storage Facility in Kazakhstan was scheduled to be constructed and launched by September 2017 (Amano, 2017).
Currently, the regional economic integration has become one of the main conspicuous issues in the global economy. In the recent years, the number of the free trade regime agreements signed between developing countries with transition economies and developed countries has rapidly increased.
Last year was marked by significant changes in the economic structure of Kazakhstan. As a result of low oil prices, the crude oil export revenues reduced to $22.3 billion, which is even lower than in 2015 when it was $31.1 billion and three times lower than in 2011 when it reached $62.3 billion.
February 22, the National Academy of Sciences held a general meeting on the 70th anniversary of its foundation, to which Nursultan Nazarbayev, the President of Kazakhstan, was invited, and for the first time in recent years, the general university community - teachers and professors of universities of Almaty were present as guests.
Despite the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), China remains the major trade partner of Kazakhstan. Within the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) Initiative, the two countries are developing infrastructure facilities for bilateral trade. Consequently, the EEU, a regional organization, initially created aiming to protect itself from an excessive economic influence of China, has changed its direction toward the interface with the Chinese initiative.