Since 2011, civil war in Syria has forced more than 12 million Syrians to leave their homeland. Among them, 6.6 million Syrians were relocated within the country to safer regions while 5 million Syrians sought refuge in neighboring countries such as Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Iraq. As of February 28, 2017, there are 2,992,762 refugees in Turkey, 2,880,000 of whom are Syrians.
The Northern Sea Route (NSR) is the Russian maritime transportation route in the Arctic. The Northern Sea Route is the shortest sea route connecting the ports of the European part of Russia and the ports of the Far East. The NSR passes through the seas of the Arctic Ocean: Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi seas and partially through the Pacific Ocean – Bering Sea. The length of the route is 7 600 km (Брызгалов, 2011).
Kazakhstan has implemented important reforms and achieved major breakthroughs in its political and socioeconomic development, and the nation’s energy and mineral resources have played a crucial role in this transformation. At the same time, however, Kazakhstan has not largely succeeded in developing its non-resource-based industrial and tradable sectors, which results in its high dependence on unfavorable events and trends in today’s world economy and politics.
Kazakhstan adheres to the multi-vector cooperation and partnership in foreign policy. The European Union, as one of the main global political economic actors, has a special place in the Kazakhstani multi-vector policy. In the beginning of 1993, the first diplomatic relations were established between the EU and Kazakhstan.
Tourism sector with ever-growing prospects has become one of the major categories of international trade in services. In 2015 1.18 billion international tourists have traveled around the world where international tourism receipts reached $1.26 trillion. International tourism represents 7% of the world’s exports of goods and services. In total tourism revenues, direct, indirect and induced impact consisted $7.2 trillion equal to 10% of global GDP.
On March 28, 2017, President Trump signed an executive order which rolls back Obama’s environmental regulations, including Obama’s Clean Power Plan (CPP) (BBC, 2017). CPP was aimed at cutting fossil fuels from electricity production in order to curb climate change and limit environmental pollution while helping the country to prepare for the future impacts of global warming.
Since 16-17 centuries, the Russian academic elite formed strong scientific school of the Oriental studies, which focused on the issues of interaction between Russia and Asia. The Russian scientists were convinced that the historical destiny of Russia lies precisely in establishing close links with the Asian region.
On June 28, 2016, Kazakhstan was elected as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) for a twoyear term beginning in January 2017. Thus, Kazakhstan has become the first Central Asian country to be elected to the world’s most important political body that has the primary responsibility for maintaining global peace and security.
Currently, the Russian economy is suffering from an economic slowdown. GDP of Russia decreased by 3.7% and 0.2% in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Under these conditions, it is not surprising that the country experiences the increase of public debt to GDP, which according to the Finance Ministry of Russia, will reach 14.6% or $223.3 (hereinafter USD/RUB is 56.79) billion in 2017, while in 2016 the rate was 13.2% or $195.6 billion.
The main feature of the historical development of the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century as a multinational state was that the bulk of Muslims of the Russian Empire were Turkic-speaking people. The idea of the "unity in faith" was closely intertwined with the set of ideas including common features of the Turkic people and their common history.