Publication Categories

KazAID – Kazakhstan’s Emerging Foreign Policy Instrument

In August 2020, Kazakhstan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) announced the plans to start the work of the non-profit joint-stock company “Kazakhstan International Development Agency -KazAID” in September [Abdullaeva, 2020]. Although the intention to create KazAID was initiated back in 2016 and the draft of the government decree was opened […]


The Consequences of Population Ageing in Japan

Population ageing is indisputably one of the most reframing social phenomena of the 21st century. World Health Organization (WHO) (2018) predicts that the world population will be ageing and the proportion of people aged 60 years and older will almost double from 12% to 22% between 2015 and 2050. By […]


Urban Demographics in Kazakhstan and Economic Significance of Large Cities

Over the last several years Kazakhstan has been prioritizing the urbanization of the population and enlargement of the major urban centers of the country. The significance of cities with population over one million people was emphasized by the first President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev at the jubilee forum of the […]


Influence of PISA on Educational Systems: Global and Local Dimensions

There is a considerable number of various international rankings that measure different intercountry variables, such as GDP, levels of political freedom, and others. However, one of the basic and most fundamental factors that influence economic, social, and political conditions is education. Among many educational tests available for the international community […]


Digital Central Asia: State of the Art

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed how vital digital technologies are in our life. Unforeseen technological consequences of lockdown and quarantine measures caught unaware both peoples and governments. They also tested the readiness and capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digital services of countries since a large part of […]


Belarus and its Strategic Allies

The presidential election in Belarus caused countrywide mass protests due to claims of fraud. The excessive state response and repressions towards protesters drew criticism in the Western countries, mainly those that refused to recognize Alexander Lukashenko as president. The United States and the European Union (EU) called for economic sanctions. […]


European Union – China Cooperation: Values versus Trade

On September 14, 2020, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, European Council President Charles Michel, and European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen conducted negotiations with Chinese President Xi Jinping via video conference. This high-level online meeting took place instead of a summit to be held in Leipzig, where the leaders of […]


Landlocked Developing Countries and Covid-19 Pandemic

In January 2020, Kazakhstan took the chairmanship in the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) group of landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) for 2020-2021 [KazTAG, 2020]. This group within the UNCTAD is designed to promote the interests of 32 developing landlocked states because being a landlocked country is considered to […]


Overview of China’s “Mask Diplomacy”

During the annual session of the UN General Assembly in September 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump blamed China for the spread of coronavirus. Considering that his claims were voiced out not for the first time, Chinese President Xi Jinping in his recorded speech responded by calling to reject the attempts […]


Challenges for Central Asian Economies

Central Asian economies highly depend on revenues from mineral resources and migrant remittances. This fact is a major disadvantage, which regional governments try to address. However, many programs of industrialization insignificantly contributed to economic diversification. As a result, following the oil shock that coincided with the Ukrainian crisis, the region […]