In the early 2000s, in order to reduce the costs of production, a large number of Western companies moved their industrial facilities to regions with an undeveloped market, cheap labor and low industrial costs for environment.
Taking into the fact that the Trans-Eurasian rail cargo is on the rise it is not surprising that regional countries are strongly interested in enhancing their railway network with new routes and new logistics hubs.
Since today we live in the age of globalization and economies, and financial systems of almost all countries are interconnected, social and economic fluctuations in a country can affect other countries. The U.S.
Russia has one of the most complex geographical positions in the world. The total area of its territory includes 17.125 million square km accounting for nearly one-eighth of the Earth’s land surface and its coastline is the second longest in the world.
As it is well known, the economy of Kazakhstan is highly dependent on extractive industries, which has implications for coordinating fiscal policy. During 2014- 2016, Kazakhstan's oil and gas revenues decreased by almost two thirds.