Publication Categories

The Risks of the High Government Debt for Central Asia

Increasing levels of debt became a common concern for many advanced and developing countries. Debt-to-GDP ratios are historically high in the United States, Germany, France and other advanced economies. Rapid growth of government expenditure as the result of many social programs, lower tax revenues, increasing share of elders among population […]


Civil Activism in the Era of Coronavirus

The past few months have given new insight into the phenomenon of civic activism. This is primarily due to the spread of the pandemic throughout the world and the natural desire of people to rally to confront this threat. One of the most complete and classic definitions of civic activism […]


How Russia is Important for Kyrgyzstan?

Kyrgyzstan is currently experiencing deep political and economic crises. The list of negative factors, in particular the pandemic-induced lockdowns, sharp decline in migrant remittances, and reduction in external demand for its basic exports significantly contributed to the economic decline. The country’s tourism sector, one of the main contributors to its […]


A Brief Review of Migration from Poland since the EU Accession

One of the most disputable issues in Europe is the migration to the European Union (EU). Most Western European countries became migrant magnet countries attracting large numbers of people by the virtue of the recruitment of workers and family reunification in the 1960-1970s. Countries that joined the EU have experienced […]


KazAID – Kazakhstan’s Emerging Foreign Policy Instrument

In August 2020, Kazakhstan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) announced the plans to start the work of the non-profit joint-stock company “Kazakhstan International Development Agency -KazAID” in September [Abdullaeva, 2020]. Although the intention to create KazAID was initiated back in 2016 and the draft of the government decree was opened […]


The Consequences of Population Ageing in Japan

Population ageing is indisputably one of the most reframing social phenomena of the 21st century. World Health Organization (WHO) (2018) predicts that the world population will be ageing and the proportion of people aged 60 years and older will almost double from 12% to 22% between 2015 and 2050. By […]


Urban Demographics in Kazakhstan and Economic Significance of Large Cities

Over the last several years Kazakhstan has been prioritizing the urbanization of the population and enlargement of the major urban centers of the country. The significance of cities with population over one million people was emphasized by the first President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev at the jubilee forum of the […]


Influence of PISA on Educational Systems: Global and Local Dimensions

There is a considerable number of various international rankings that measure different intercountry variables, such as GDP, levels of political freedom, and others. However, one of the basic and most fundamental factors that influence economic, social, and political conditions is education. Among many educational tests available for the international community […]


Digital Central Asia: State of the Art

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed how vital digital technologies are in our life. Unforeseen technological consequences of lockdown and quarantine measures caught unaware both peoples and governments. They also tested the readiness and capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digital services of countries since a large part of […]


Belarus and its Strategic Allies

The presidential election in Belarus caused countrywide mass protests due to claims of fraud. The excessive state response and repressions towards protesters drew criticism in the Western countries, mainly those that refused to recognize Alexander Lukashenko as president. The United States and the European Union (EU) called for economic sanctions. […]