Kazakhstan is resource rich country, and its economy highly depends on the oil export. Oil prices that have been low since the middle of 2014 had a significant effect on the country’s balance of payments and exchange rate.
Today, highly skilled workers play an essential role in the economic development of especially developing countries. This skilled labor force is the engine of breakthrough innovations that boost the economic growth with new production methods.
Afghanistan has experienced a protracted conflict for almost thirty-five years that hindered its development. Furthermore, over the past five years the country has seen the rise of the armed non-state actors who keep challenging the territorial control of the Government.
The improvement of transportation systems, development of communications, urbanization and growing mobility of population and their social wealth are important factors positively affecting the tourism sector in the world.
The economic development of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), also known as East Turkestan, which is China's gateway to Eurasia, has significant importance not only for China, but also for the neighboring countries in the region.
Australia, Kazakhstan and Canada possess more than 50% of the world’s uranium deposits. Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium deposits after Australia.
In the last thirteen years, academics and policymakers have shown increasing interest in the development of foreign direct investments (FDI). In particular, the positive effect of FDI on economic growth was widely investigated.
In his research, Fischer (1996), noted that long run price stability should be the main goal of a central bank, and he stated that there can also be some other goals of a central bank, such as achieving full employment and output growth.