The Central Asian Energy System (CAES) was designed and built during the Soviet period, when political borders and sovereignty issue were not an obstacle to ensure parallel operation of national energy sectors.
Over the last two decades, the banking sector has expanded significantly in the economy of Kazakhstan. The highest development in the banking sector took place in the period between 2000 and 2008 (until 2008 world economic crisis).
2016 turned out to be the hottest year on record. Moreover, with 2014 and 2015 previously winning the title of the hottest year, 2016 becomes third one in a row. Besides, 16 out of 17 hottest years on instrumental temperature record took place in the 21st century.
In March-April of 2014, the US and the European Union countries, Canada along with Australia and Japan imposed sanctions on Russia over Ukrainian/Crimean crisis. These sanctions mostly targeted Russian arms, energy and financial state-owned entities and Russian officials.
On December 23, 2016, the Bloomberg news agency reported that the Kazkommertsbank, which is the biggest commercial bank in Kazakhstan, is in trouble and borrowed 400 billion tenge from the National Bank of Kazakhstan (NBK) to deal with its liquidity problems
The Kashagan oilfield is located in the nature reserve area of the northern part of the Caspian Sea. The waters here are shallow with depth of two to ten meters. Moreover, the area has an extreme weather conditions with hot summers and cold winters.