With 12 million people migrating to Russia annually the country holds the second most popular migrant magnet destination title after United States (47 million) (UN, 2016).
In his research, Fischer (1996), noted that long run price stability should be the main goal of a central bank, and he stated that there can also be some other goals of a central bank, such as achieving full employment and output growth.
Among the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Kazakhstan has the 2rd largest liquid hydrocarbon fields after Russia.
The failed coup of August 19-21, 1991, marked the demise of the Soviet Union and a birth of new national states. It’s a date of a great significance for those who celebrate the 25 years anniversary of independence, feeling relief and hope for future.
It is widely known that nowadays the littoral states of the Caspian region have moved far away from the legal-theoretical dilemma of whether the Caspian is a sea or a lake in a legal sense (Janusz-Pawletta, 2015).
The most recent reports on the external trade of the Committee of Statistics of the Ministry of the National Economy of Kazakhstan have shown a large decline. During the first half of 2016 the overall amount of trade with other countries has fallen by approximately one third.
Today it is widely believed that stock market is very important for sustained economic development. The idea of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth was first proposed by Gurley and Shaw (1955).
In 2015, remittance inflow to developing countries increased by 0.4% to $431.6 billion from $430 billion comparing with 2014. However, global remittances, including the ones from high-income countries fell by 1.7% to $581.6 billion in 2015 (WB, 2016).